Part 10: From the origins of the internet to decentralized Web 3.0


The digital world has evolved from the static pages of Web 1.0 to the interactive experiences of Web 2.0. As we transition towards Web 3.0, there's growing curiosity about its potential. Web 3.0, or the Semantic Web, aims to make data on the internet machine-readable, setting the stage for more intelligent and autonomous online interactions.

Today's internet, dominated by Web 2.0, has transformed how we connect and share online. Social media platforms like Facebook have been pivotal, introducing features like Messenger and enabling the creation of web-based applications. However, Facebook and similar platforms are not Web 2.0 but are built on its infrastructure, allowing for the development of multi-layered online applications.

Web 3.0 addresses Web 2.0's shortcomings, particularly in data privacy and security, using blockchain and zero-knowledge-proof technologies. It promises a web where users can control their data and personalize their online experiences without sacrificing privacy.

The evolution to Web 3

The Origins of the Internet

Before Web 1.0, the Internet was a network infrastructure enabling computers to communicate. Born from academic and military projects in the mid-20th century, it commercialized in the 90s, laying the groundwork for the World Wide Web.

The foundation of the Web was laid by the development of the Internet, a network of networks that facilitated computer communication globally. This connectivity paved the way for the Web, a system for accessing and interlinking documents and applications.

Web 1.0: The Era of Static Pages

Characterized by simple, read-only websites, Web 1.0 marked the internet's infancy. Users passively consumed content without interaction, starkly contrasting today's dynamic web.

Key Characteristics:

  • Content served from the server file system
  • Only in the form of "a WebForm and a document"
  • Read-only Web having limited user interaction with no login or registration for a user
  • Linking static pages with content together over the internet with the use of clickable hypertext links
  • Pages built using Server Side Includes or Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
  • Frames and Tables are used to position and align the elements on a page
  • Keyword-based search
  • Lack of Web standards
  • The first appearance of Flash and Java
  • A minimal amount of banner advertisements

The early web was a collection of static pages. Limited user interaction and basic content defined this era, making it primarily a source of information rather than a platform for collaboration.

Web 2.0: The Interactive Web

Web 2.0 introduced a more interactive web where users could consume and create content. This era saw the rise of social media, blogging, and e-commerce, transforming users into active participants in the web's ecosystem.

This is the web of all likes, retweets, comments, threads, GIFs, likes, follows, subscribes, and hears, but also of hiding, muting, ignoring, reporting, and saving for later.

Distinct Features:

  • Information from pages as with 1.0, but pages getting information from us too; these pages boasting enhanced functionality and better looks; all possible due to higher data throughput capabilities
  • The Web dominates all other media in terms of the quantity of available content
  • Instead of simple pages, which were hyperlinked to each other, we have web pages and programs linked together to form feature-rich and dynamic applications usable across multiple devices
  • Finding information through keyword search and categorization of content, enhanced by users adding "tags" — short, usually one-word or two-word descriptions — to facilitate searching
  • The use of syndication technology, such as RSS feeds, to notify users of content changes
  • Devices operating with information from a user, such as location, and adapting the web content based on it
  • Web-consuming user data and providing content or services based on user needs, preferences, or just data collected about a user
  • Web user behavior tracking and follow-up suggestions
  • Free sorting of information that permits users to retrieve and classify the information collectively
  • Information flows between the site owner and site users by means of evaluation & online commenting
  • Developed APIs to allow self-usage, such as by a software application
  • More interactive advertising

Web 2.0 transformed the internet into an interactive and collaborative space. It wasn't just about consuming content, creating, sharing, and connecting with others. This period saw the rise of social media, online commerce, and the proliferation of web applications.

Summarizing Ajax and Flash: Web 2.0's Foundations

Ajax: Asynchronous JavaScript and XML

Ajax stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, a fundamental technology that powered the dynamic and interactive nature of Web 2.0 websites. It enables web pages to send and receive data from a server asynchronously without requiring a page reload. This technology combines web presentation, data exchange, and client-side scripts to improve the user experience. The XMLHttpRequest (XHR) API is crucial to Ajax, allowing data exchange between the browser and server. Ajax's primary function is to update web content dynamically, making web applications like maps more responsive and efficient by only loading parts of the page that need updating.

Flash: The Era of Multimedia Content

Developed by Macromedia, which Adobe later acquired, Flash was pivotal in bringing rich multimedia content to the early internet. It allowed users to interact with animated content and play videos before downloading the entire file, contributing to a more dynamic web experience. Flash was essential for delivering video, audio, and games, enabling content to start playing with minimal delay. However, with advancements in web standards, Flash's relevance waned as technologies like jQuery and HTML5 offered more secure and efficient alternatives for multimedia content. Adobe officially discontinued Flash in 2020, marking the end of an era.

Transitioning to Modern Web Technologies

Both Ajax and Flash were instrumental in shaping the interactive and multimedia-rich websites characteristic of Web 2.0. However, as the web evolved, reliance on Flash decreased in favor of more modern, open-standard technologies like HTML5, which offer similar functionalities without the security vulnerabilities and performance issues associated with Flash. Ajax continues to be a backbone for dynamic web applications, while the web has moved beyond Flash, embracing standards that ensure greater compatibility and security across devices and platforms.

The Evolution of Web2: From Messaging to Dynamic Interactions

Web2 marked a pivotal shift in the internet's evolution, transitioning from the static pages of Web 1.0 to a more dynamic and interactive era. Beginning with MSN Messenger's introduction in 1999, which gained popularity by 2003, to the launch of Facebook in 2004, this period saw the transformation of social media platforms and the rise of web systems as platforms for embedded applications.

Unlike its predecessor, which was characterized by text and simple images, Web 2.0 brought forth rich media content, including large videos and a variety of data that could be easily shared and disseminated. It established a framework where users became active contributors, thereby creating a more interactive web environment. This era introduced internet banking, online shopping, and services like Uber and Airbnb, illustrating the web's transition into a platform for innovative technologies and user-centered applications.

The significant leap from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 lay in enhancing website interactivity—initially through comments at the bottom of articles, enabling users to contribute content directly on their visited pages. This phase evolved to allow personal profile creation, data uploads, group interactions, and roles such as sub-admins or moderators, defining Web2's interactive nature as the read-write web.

Web 2.0 also sparked an informational explosion, making it possible to find answers from diverse sources online. Although often synonymous with social media, Web 2.0 encompasses much more, providing a platform that supports various applications through open APIs and shared information.

This era saw the rise of blogging, forums, wikis, and social media platforms like WordPress, Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, significantly influencing online content creation and sharing. Moreover, Web2 revolutionized web interactions, offering personalized suggestions based on user behavior, from shopping tips to restaurant recommendations. This personalized approach, driven by data collection on user activities, highlighted privacy concerns as web services began tailoring content and advertisements based on individual preferences and behaviors.

The challenge for Web3 lies in addressing these privacy issues while maintaining the freedom and functionality of the internet. Blockchain technology presents a promising solution, offering opportunities for a decentralized, secure, and user-controlled web. As we prepare to delve into Web3, it's crucial to understand Web2's foundational technologies and features, which have set the stage for the next evolution of the internet.

Web2 has positioned users at the forefront, enabling unprecedented connections, content creation, and interaction. It introduced technical features like public APIs for third-party integrations, rich media content embedding, and cross-device notifications, enhancing the user experience and paving the way for the decentralized ambitions of Web3.

Bridging to Web 3.0

Web 3.0 aims to build on the interactive foundation of Web 2.0, focusing on data privacy, security, and user sovereignty. It represents a shift towards a more open, decentralized web where users control their data and digital identities.

In conclusion, as we move from Web 2.0 to Web 3.0, we stand on the brink of a new era characterized by greater user control, enhanced privacy, and a more semantic, interconnected web. This transition promises a future where the internet connects us more deeply with the world and respects and protects our individuality and data.

But we are not there yet; the following challenges must be addressed...

Navigating from Centralized Control to Decentralized Freedom

Throughout our journey from the inception of the Web, we've witnessed a significant evolution—from the static, server-delivered pages of Web1 to the socially vibrant, interactive platforms of Web2. Despite technological advancements enhancing speed and interactivity, Web2's architecture remains fundamentally centralized. This centralization presents vulnerabilities, including potential government interference and privacy concerns.

The Centralization Dilemma

Centralized Web2 servers, while technologically advanced, come with inherent risks:

  • Confiscated Content: Governments can seize and use data against citizens.
  • Data Ownership: Social media platforms retain copies of personal information.
  • Shutdown Risks: Centralized services can be discontinued at the discretion of their owners.
  • Arbitrary Bans: Users can be excluded without justification.

In various regions, access to platforms like Facebook, Google, and YouTube is heavily restricted, demonstrating the impact of centralized control over the internet.

The Promise of Decentralization

The transition towards decentralized web technologies offers a beacon of hope. By leveraging public blockchains and Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) technologies, Web3 aims to create an unstoppable, secure web where user privacy and autonomy are paramount.

The Shift to Blockchain

Blockchain technology is not merely a trend but a transformative force in redefining web interactions:

  • El Salvador's Adoption: The first country to recognize Bitcoin as a legal tender.
  • Texas' Legislative Progress: Legalizing Bitcoin for tax payments.

These developments underscore the practical applications and growing acceptance of blockchain technologies.

Conclusion: A Call to Action

As we approach the final chapter of this exploration, the shift towards Web3 invites us to envision a future where the internet is not just a space for interaction but a platform for genuine freedom and privacy. For libertarians, technophiles, cyber-punks, and all champions of digital liberty, the move towards a decentralized web is not just a possibility—it's unfolding now.

Join us in embracing this transition, where the limitations of the past give way to a future of unlimited potential. The party has just begun, and you're on the guest list.

Web 3.0: A Fusion of Personalization and Privacy

Web 3.0, the next evolutionary leap in the internet's journey, promises to redefine our digital experience by blending the immersive potential of virtual reality with unparalleled privacy and security. This iteration aims to transcend the boundaries established by Web 2.0, offering a more personalized, interactive web that respects user sovereignty.

Beyond Boundaries with Virtual Reality

Imagine exploring the Louvre, attending a live concert, or wandering through distant lands—all from the comfort of your living room. Web 3.0 seeks to remove the constraints on our creativity and experiences, enabling us to customize our digital interactions to our liking. This level of personalization and immersion signifies a shift towards an internet that connects us and adapts to us, making every online journey uniquely our own.

Prioritizing Privacy and Security

While the prospects of virtual exploration and personalized digital realms are enticing, Web 3.0 significantly emphasizes enhancing user privacy and security. In this new web era, the marvels of technology are matched by a commitment to protect individual data and ensure secure online interactions. Web 3.0 is about building a safer, more secure internet where users can confidently navigate, knowing their privacy is safeguarded.

In essence, Web 3.0 heralds a future where the internet becomes not just a space for exploration and connection but a platform for securing our digital freedoms and privacy.

Web 3.0: Crafting the Semantic Web for Enhanced Interactivity and Sovereignty

Web 3.0 stands at the forefront of the internet's evolution, promising a seismic shift in how we interact with the digital world. This new phase aims to transcend the limitations of Web 2.0, offering a more personalized and sovereign online experience powered by the principles of the Semantic Web and blockchain technology.

Personalizing the Web Experience

In the era of Web 2.0, applications were crafted to be interactive, allowing users to engage with content in ways previously unimagined. Platforms like YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and Amazon revolutionized our digital interactions, offering a level of engagement and freedom that reshaped our lives. However, this interactivity was defined within the constraints set by developers, limited by the tools at their disposal and the boundaries of the internet itself.

Web 3.0 envisions breaking these constraints, enabling users to tailor their web experience to their individual preferences far beyond basic aesthetic choices like font, color theme, or language. It introduces the concept of a Semantic Web, where applications understand user preferences and needs, adapting the Internet experience uniquely for each individual.

Empowering Users with Blockchain

The foundation of Web 3.0's promise lies in blockchain technology, which offers users robust guarantees about their online interactions. This technology ensures transparency and security regarding the information users receive, share, and make transactions. Web 3.0's blockchain-based framework aspires to create a decentralized web where all blockchains can interoperate seamlessly, providing developers with the building blocks for innovative applications.

Gavin Wood, a key figure in the development of Ethereum, Polkadot, and Kusama, likens Web 3.0 to an "executable Magna Carta," a digital declaration of individual freedom against authoritarian control. This comparison highlights Web 3.0's commitment to user sovereignty, promising a web where individuals have unparalleled control over their digital presence and interactions.


Web 3.0 represents a transformative leap towards a more interactive, personalized, and secure internet. By leveraging the Semantic Web and blockchain, it aims to dismantle the barriers imposed by earlier web technologies, granting users the freedom to shape their digital experiences and protect their online sovereignty. As we venture into this new era, the potential for innovation and empowerment is boundless, promising a web that connects us and respects and amplifies our individuality.

Embracing Trust: The Transition to Web 3.0

Web 3.0 represents a significant evolution from the interactive capabilities of Web 2.0, introducing a new era of the Internet based on trust, decentralization, and security. This shift is primarily facilitated by integrating blockchain technology, which offers unparalleled verifiability and security, marking a departure from the centralized architecture of previous web generations.

Key Features of Web 3

  • Decentralization and Security: At its core, Web 3.0 aims to decentralize the Internet, making it more secure and user-centric. Blockchain technology enables this shift, allowing for a web where trust is embedded in the infrastructure through smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps).
  • Enhanced Privacy with ZKP: A critical aspect of Web 3.0 is the emphasis on user privacy, achieved through technologies like Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKP). ZKP allows for anonymous transactions and interactions, ensuring users' privacy and security without compromising on functionality.
  • Autonomy and Open-Source Development: The future of Web 3.0 sees applications running autonomously without centralized control. This independence from corporate oversight promises a web that is maintained by a global community of developers, further emphasizing the open-source nature of this new digital era.

Several fundamental goals drive Web 3:

  • Trustless Infrastructure: Utilizing smart contracts to build a web where users can engage in various activities without fear of fraud or technical failures.
  • Global Interconnectivity: Removing intermediaries to allow direct interactions among users worldwide, enhancing global connectivity and cooperation.
  • Data Sovereignty: Empowering users with complete control over their data, identity, and digital transactions, ensuring a level of sovereignty previously unattainable.
  • Censorship Resistance: Guaranteeing freedom of expression by creating a platform where content cannot be arbitrarily censored or removed.

The ecosystem encompassing Web 3 includes:

  • Blockchain and DWeb Projects: Initiatives that are building the foundation for a decentralized web, focusing on secure data linkage, cryptographic security, and peer-to-peer connectivity.
  • Decentralized Computation and Storage: Enabling applications to run independently, supported by decentralized networks that offer robust computation and storage solutions.

Web 3 brings numerous advancements and innovations:

  • Seamless Integration Across Devices: Ensuring content and services are universally accessible, promoting better synchronization between mobile apps and web services.
  • Semantic Web Technologies: Enhancing the web's ability to understand and process information more humanistically, improving search results and content relevancy.
  • Inter-platform Interactivity: Allowing for a more integrated digital experience where users can navigate between different platforms and virtual spaces effortlessly.
  • Emerging Technologies: Incorporating augmented reality, virtual reality, machine learning, and artificial intelligence to create a more immersive and intelligent web environment.
  • Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Promoting peer-to-peer financial interactions, free from traditional banking constraints and powered by blockchain technology.

In summary, Web 3 heralds a transformative Internet era characterized by trust, decentralization, and user empowerment. Adopting blockchain and related technologies promises a more secure, private, and interconnected digital landscape, paving the way for innovations redefining our online experiences.

Web3: The Blockchain-Enhanced Internet

Web3 signifies a transformative era for the internet, integrating blockchain technology to enhance privacy, security, and interoperability. This new phase of the web, often described as the read-write-trust Web, leverages the principles of decentralization found in blockchain to build a more secure and verifiable online environment. Unlike Web2's centralized nature, Web3 introduces a decentralized web where interactions and transactions are not only possible but are inherently secure and private.

Enhancing Digital Interactions with Blockchain

Web3 reimagines digital interactions by incorporating features such as Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), Decentralized Finance (DeFi), and virtual realities, including the much-discussed concept of the Metaverse. Blockchain add-ons like MetaMask become standard tools, serving as gateways to these new digital realms. Users gain the ability to:

  • Trade items via NFTs, asserting true ownership of digital assets.
  • Embrace DeFi as an alternative to traditional banking, enjoying increased liquidity and networked services.
  • Navigate and participate in virtual realities, merging experiences across gaming platforms without boundaries.

Personalization and Privacy at the Forefront

Web3 maintains the search and interaction capabilities familiar in Web2 but introduces a significant enhancement: anonymity. This shift ensures that personal data, location, and identity remain private, addressing the critical challenge of privacy on the internet. The move towards anonymous interactions directly responds to dominant internet companies' censorship and data control.

From Data Monarchy to Data Democracy

The transition to Web3 is underpinned by a shift from data monarchy, where data is controlled by a few centralized entities, to a data democracy, empowered by blockchain's decentralization and Zero-Knowledge (ZK) technologies. This shift guarantees anonymity, making peer-to-peer technologies more robust and secure. With blockchain, information is transparent across the network yet protected through advanced cryptography, allowing for a transparent yet private web experience.

Key Advancements in Web3:

  • Decentralized Applications (dApps): Run autonomously without centralized control, with development driven by the community rather than corporate entities.
  • Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs): Enable transactions and voting without compromising privacy, offering a secure method for participation in digital democracies.


Web3 is set to redefine the internet landscape by merging the decentralized power of blockchain with the dynamic capabilities of Web2. It promises a future where users can interact, create, and trade within a secure, private, and interoperable digital space. As Web3 continues to evolve, it aims to deliver a more democratic internet, where privacy, security, and user autonomy are paramount.

Web3: Pioneering Data Democracy

Web3 introduces a revolutionary approach to internet governance, emphasizing uncensorable, anonymous, and permissionless interactions. This new phase of the web champions data democracy through decentralized platforms and technologies that empower users far beyond current capabilities.

Core Principles of Web3

  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Commerce: Enables direct transactions without censorship or oversight.
  • Social Media Freedom: Promotes anonymous and unrestricted social interactions.
  • Inclusive Governance: Allows every user to participate in financial decision-making, a feature lacking in many traditional democracies.

Decentralized Governance with DAOs

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) exemplify Web3's impact on governance, demonstrating that true power resides in financial decision-making rather than mere representation. Web3, with technologies like Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs, offers a scalable way for individuals to exercise direct control over budget allocations, democratizing financial power.

Challenging Traditional Power Structures

Web3 questions the wisdom of concentrating power among the wealthy, proposing a system where virtue and productivity determine influence. However, it acknowledges potential risks like Sybil attacks, advocating for solutions like Proof of Work to safeguard the integrity of decentralized decision-making.

Ensuring Accountability in Budget Allocation

Web3 addresses the accountability gap in current democratic and charitable funding processes. Leveraging smart contracts ensures that funds are used precisely as intended, providing a transparent and efficient mechanism for budget allocation and fulfilling promises.


Web3 is an evolution and a revolution, transforming data control paradigms and returning power to individuals. It promises a future where sovereignty, privacy, and participation are not just ideals but realities, marking a significant departure from today's data monopolies towards a more equitable and democratic digital world.

Summary before you go

Disclaimer: This is just a personal opinion, not financial advice, not responsible for anything :)

The definitions of Webs (1,2,3) are not strict; what is a strict Web definition for one may be just trespassing of virtual borders between two phases for another. Some don't try to fit the Web into categories based on technological milestones but just distinguish between what is new and upcoming from what is already deprecated or used as a standard.

Key points to remember:

Web1 - Users are consumers and content created by professionals

Web2 - Content provided by users, existing centralized Web

Web3 - Is still an evolving concept, but basically, it is all about decentralized distributed content and technologies that will have the following impact on the Web that will become:

  • independent without a single point of failure
  • sustainable in the face of data loss of all kinds
  • uncensorable (if this is the goal)
  • empowered with crypto payments and decentralized finance
  • utilizing the power of ZKP and public blockchains